Kremlin – Moscow

The Moscow Kremlin is a citadel that dates back to medieval times. From 1264 it became the official residence of the princes of Moscow.

The Kremlin was renovated several times throughout its history, in 1367 the original wooden palisades were replaced by white stone walls and towers, and between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries a large number of cathedrals were erected inside. 

Between 1485 and 1516 the defensive system was further improved, which under Ivan III assumed the appearance of an almost impregnable fortress for the technologies of the time.

It was destroyed by Napoleon in 1812 but was rebuilt again between 1815 and 1836

Within its walls it houses many palaces such as the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Cathedral Square.

The Grand Kremlin Palace was initially the home of the tsars and their imperial families but, after the end of the monarchy in 1917, the Palace became the seat of the highest state authorities. The Grand Palace is currently the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation.

The Archangel Cathedral is named after the Archangel Michael, patron saint of Muscovite princes and tsars. The Cathedral was built in 1300 but already in 1500 it was enlarged to contain all the tombs for which it was intended. Here were buried the Grand Princes and Tsars among whom we find Ivan III and Ivan IV called the Terrible. The Cathedral of the Annunciation for centuries was the private chapel of the royal family. It was built in 1300 and its current appearance is given to different phases of expansion that have led to the construction of several domes and side chapels. 

The Ivan the Great Bell Tower complex, made of white stone, dominates an entire side of the Cathedral Square and houses several of the largest bells in the world.

The complex consists of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, the Bell Tower of the Assumption and the Annex of the Filarete. The oldest part is that of the Bell Tower built in 1500. Initially it was about 60 meters high, with an octagonal base, surmounted by a dome. A few decades later it was raised to its current height of 81 meters and for a long time it was the tallest building in all of Moscow, since there was a ban on building buildings that exceeded it. 

In the vicinity of the complex are the Tsarina of the Bells and the Tsar of the Cannons, great works but never working.

Between 1935 and 1937 the Kremlin became the main symbol of the new state. In place of the double-headed eagles of the imperial family placed on the top of the main towers, 5-pointed stars with a diameter of about 3 meters were installed.

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